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What is Curl?
Curl is an open-source command-line tool and a cross-platform library (libcurl) that allows users to make requests from clients to servers. Curl supports over 25+ protocols, including HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, and SFTP. Curl has built-in support for SSL, certificate validation, HTTP Cookies support, and user authentication. Curl works on Linux, Windows, and macOS.
What is Content Type?
The Content-Type header is used to specify the media type of the resource in the HTTP entity. The content type is specified according to MIME (Multipurpose Email Extensions), which are standardized and published by the IANA. The Content-Type header defines the nature of the data in the body of the HTTP message by specifying the type and subtype identifiers and optionally additional parameters for specific data types. A set of additional parameters is passed in key/value format. For example, when sending a PNG image to the server, the browser specifies the content type of the request as Content-Type: image/png. If the server returns an HTML document, the response Content-Type will be text/html.
How can I pass the Content-Type header using Curl?
When you send data to the server using Curl by making a POST, PUT, or PATCH request, you must also specify the data type in the body of the message using the Content-Type header. This is important and allows the server to receive, interpret and process the received data correctly. To pass a Content-Type header to Curl, use the -H command-line option.
Curl Content-Type Syntax
The syntax for specifying the data type for a Curl request is:
- -H, —header: the HTTP header with which contains the data type for the data in the request body
- d, —data: data to send to server using POST, PUT, or PATCH request.
Why do I need to explicitly specify the Content-Type when posting data using Curl?
If you are submitting data using Curl and you do not explicitly specify the content type, Curl uses the application/x-www-form-urlencoded content type for your data. This is what your browser typically uses when submitting an HTML form. If this title doesn't suit you, you need to replace it with the correct one. For example, if you send JSON to the server, you need to specify the data type using the -H "Content-Type: application/json" command line parameter.
Why is it important to specify the correct Content-Type when submitting JSON?
If you don't set the correct Content-Type, your app may not work. For example, the target server can accept XML and JSON data on the same API endpoint. Setting Content-Type to application/json will let the server know that the client is sending JSON data, and application/xml will tell the server that the client is sending XML.
Curl Content-Type Example for JSON Data
An example of sending the Content-Type header for JSON data:
Curl Content-Type Example for XML Data
An example of sending the Content-Type header for XML data: